MASSAGE AND SELF-MASSAGE
Massage helps to improve blood supply to the massaged areas of the body, activates skin respiration, enhances the functions of sweat and sebaceous glands, the skin becomes more elastic, and muscles and ligaments become more elastic. Massage has a calming effect on the nervous system, favors metabolic processes, helps restore health after fatigue, and therefore is recommended by doctors.
Usually massage has special purposes, therefore it is divided into sports, medical, hygienic and is performed by specialists. The simplest type of massage is hygienic massage, which increases the overall tone of the body. It can be performed not only by a specialist, but also by those who are engaged in health-improving types of physical education, who have received appropriate skills, and self-massage techniques can be widely used.
Massage or self-massage should accompany physical and temper training and is especially effective after water procedures and swimming.
You need to massage the naked body, in some cases (for example, in cool air) you can massage through knitted or woolen linen. Starting massage (self-massage), you need to wash your hands thoroughly, and to dry them with cologne when sweating. Massaged areas of the body should be extremely relaxed. The movements of the massaging arm should take place along the lymphatic paths towards the nearest lymph nodes. For example, hands are massaged from the hand to the elbow joint, and from it to the shoulder joint, legs – from the feet to the knee and then to the hip joint; back – from the spine to the armpits; chest – from the middle to the sides (women should not touch the mammary glands); abdomen – in a circle in the direction of clockwise movement and from the bottom up to the hypochondrium; neck – from the nape down and to the sides to the collarbone. The locations of the lymph nodes are not massaged. You can not massage the inflamed areas of the body on the contaminated surface of the skin, with skin diseases, thrombosis and severe varicose veins.
In hygiene massage, the main massage techniques are: stroking, rubbing, kneading, patting, striking, “chopping”, shaking and shaking.
Stroking is done with the palmar surface of the fingers or the entire palm, while four fingers are connected together, and the big one is laid aside, the palm is pressed tightly but without strong tension to the surface of the body, and movements, not interrupted in one direction, are carried out within the boundaries of the massed area. A stroking usually begins and ends with a hygienic massage.
Trituration. It is performed by fingertips, the base of the palm and its edge by vigorous pressure on the skin and its rubbing. It is used to enhance local blood circulation, warm muscles, improve the elasticity of ligaments and increase the mobility of massaged joints.
Kneading is the main method of hygienic massage. The fingers of both hands capture the massed muscle, which is slightly extended and wrung out with one hand in one direction, with the other in the other, and thus the entire muscle is slowly and smoothly stretched. With the help of kneading, the elasticity of the massaged muscles increases and their blood circulation improves.
Slapping and striking is done by applying light but frequent claps with bent palms or similar blows with the ribs of the hands of the massaged part of the body. Blending can not be done on the abdomen.
“Chopping” is performed by alternating rhythmic strokes with the edges of the hands of both hands. Light, soft strokes should be replaced by stronger ones, while the fingers remain slightly apart and relaxed.
Shaking and shaking during self-massage is performed by light turns of the extremities of the arms and legs in one and the other direction and shaking them. In this case, hands should be raised to the sides and up above the head, and legs from the supine position to keep raised with bent knees. Muscles should be extremely relaxed. Performing self-massage, it is better to start with massaging the legs, gradually move on to the higher parts of the body.
Self-massage of the legs is in a sitting position. At the same time, the sole (from the fingers to the heel) is rubbed at first with the crests of the fingers of the hands compressed into a fist, then the lower leg, calf muscle and the front part of the lower leg are massaged, from the ankle joint to the knee joint. The knee joint is massaged with an elongated leg using stroking, circular and longitudinal grinding.
The loin is massaged in a standing position by stroking and rubbing. When rubbing, the fingers move in a small circular motion and with pressure, they move from the spine to the side.
Self-massage of the back is conveniently performed while standing, first with your hands behind your back, moving them from bottom to top, as if trying to reach the shoulder blades, then rub the upper back and shoulders alternately with your left and right hands from above.